Apostol Vassilev, Research Lead–STVM, Computer Security Division, NIST
Crypto is going smaller and light weight, lightweight protocols, apis, etc.
In modern cryptography, the algorithms are known. Key generation and management govern the strength of the keys. If this isn't right, the keys are not actually strong.
In 2013, researchers could find keys from a smart card, due to use of low-quality hardware RNG, which was stuck in a short cycle. Why was this design used? Didn't want to pay for a higher quality piece of hardware or licensing of patents.
Look at the famous "Mining your Ps and Qs: Detection of Widespread Weak Keys in Network Devices", which found that 0.75% of TLS certificates share keys, due to insufficient entropy during key generation.
One of the problems is that there is a lot of demand for entropy when a system boots... when the least amount of entropy is available.
Estimating randomness is hard. Take a well-known irrational number, e.g. Pi, and test the output bit sequence for randomness - it will be reported as random (NIST has verified this is true).
Check out the presentation by Viktor Fischer, Univ Lyon, UJM-Saint-Etienne, Laboratoire, Hubert Curien: NIST DRBG Workshop 2016.
He noted that using the statistical test approach of SP 800-90B makes it hard to automte the estimation of entropy. But automation is critically important for the new CMVP!
The solutions - an entropy service! NOT a key generation service (would you trust the government on this!?). Not similar to the NIST beacon.
Entropy as a Service (EaaS). Followed by cool pictures :-)
Key generation still happens locally. You have to be careful how you mix data from a remote entropy server.
While analyzing Linux, they discovered the process scheduling algorithm was collecting 128 bits of entropy every few seconds. Why? Who knows.
EaaS needs to worry about standard attacks on web service and protocol, like message replay, man in the middle an dns poisoning. But, other attack vectors - like dishonest EaaS instances. You will need to rely on multiple servers.
EaaS servers themselves will have to protect against malicious clients, too.
Project page: http://csrc.nist.gov/projects/eaas
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